Research
 
Abstract
High claw vacuum settings result in greater milk flow and shorter milking times, yet can result in poor teat end condition, congestion and/or edema if the milking liner design is not suited for high vacuum applications. Our study compares the effects on teat ends of a conventional liner designed for low vacuum to those of a Tri-Circle® silicone liner designed for high vacuum, within correctly tuned systems. The two liners showed similar machine-induced teat tissue changes when used in systems tuned within their respective recommended vacuum levels. These results refute the myth that higher vacuum alone results in lower teat end scores, instead indicating that a higher vacuum in conjunction with a liner designed for low vacuum is to blame for poor teat ends. Consequently, when a milking system is properly set within recommended parameters, using a Tri-Circle silicone liner with high vacuum settings, the effects on teat end condition are similar to that of low-vacuum conventional liners operated at a low vacuum.
 
 
 
 
 
Abstract
Silicone milk liners have been on the market for a number of years, yet have often been slow milking and detrimental to teat end health. This study focused on the performance of a silicone milk liner in early development. The liner’s milking performance as a function of flow and yield was measured over 3,000 milkings and then compared against competing brands. When used on a system with settings tailored to the liner, results of this study are contradictory to previous findings. The silicone liner performs as well as most liners on the market and outperforms other silicone liners in terms of milk speed, yield and teat end health. Following 3,000 milkings, the silicone liner had less surface degradation than other liners, indicating that satisfactory milking performance can be achieved with a liner made of material that is longer lasting than other liners currently on the market.
 
 
 
 
 
Abstract
In the past, high milking vacuum has been identified as a contributing factor to teat end hyperkeratosis. A new silicone liner design utilizing a three-sided Tri-Circle® barrel may hold benefits that counteract or negate the problems associated with high vacuum. A comprehensive study of teat ends at 26 working dairy farms across Pennsylvania indicates that the combination of barrel design and a new high grade silicone blend may ensure teat end health, regardless of vacuum level.
 
 
 
 
 
Abstract
Understanding the effects of twin tube diameter and length on pulsation phases is important to developing a properly tuned milking system. This study focuses on creating relational models of pulsation change based on twin tube length and diameter in a research laboratory setting. As length of the air tube increases, A- and C-phases get longer and B- and D-phases get shorter. Consequently, the A- and C-phases get shorter and the B- and D-phases get longer when the twin air tube is shortened.
 
 
 
 
 
Abstract
Milking performance is dependent on system settings, with pulsator ratio being a major factor in the overall efficiency and speed of the milking process. The objective of this study was to monitor milking performance as a result of C-Phase pulsation changes. This information can help identify areas of the milking system and process that have often been overlooked, but can make significant contributions to the effectiveness of the milking system. Increasing the C-Phase above 90 ms resulted in an increase in milking performance.
 
 
 
 
 
Abstract
Field experiences have shown that venting a cluster above the ISO recommendations can provide excellent milk flows and milk quality, yet this seems to be dependent on the particular milking system and its built-in limitations of milk flow. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how varying levels of air admission into clusters affect milking performance. Six different levels of air admission were chosen to be evaluated (5 liner vent sizes, and 1 claw vent). Milking performance data (milk yield - YLD, machine on-time - MOT, average flow rate - AFR, peak flow rate - PFR, milk in the first 2 minutes - M2M) were collected for each setting using Afikim®. The three vents providing the least amount of air admission (4.6, 9.2 and 10.6) were statistically equal to each other and ranked ahead of the others in all milking performance categories. This study shows that air admission should be considered when setting up a milking machine, and attention beyond checking to see if it is within ISO Standards can pay dividends in milking performance.
 
 
 
 
 
Abstract
The vacuum and teat-cup chamber ratio are important operating parameters that affect milking performance by milking machines. In addition, the design and composition of materials are major elements affecting the performance characteristics of (teat-cup) milking machine liners. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of vacuum and teat-cup chamber ratio on the performance of a unique monoblock silicone milking machine liner that is round in the open position and triangular in the collapsed position. System vacuum settings (set at receiver) were 40.6, 43.9, and 47.3 kPa, whereas teat-cup chamber ratios were 60:40, 65:35, and 70:30. Milk yield was greatest at a vacuum of 43.9 kPa. Manual adjustments and kickoffs were very low (<2%) at all vacuum levels and for all ratios. The interaction of vacuum level and ratio was significant for milking duration, peak flow rate, and average flow rate, but not for milk yield. Average and peak milk flow rates increased at each increasing vacuum level and each wider ratio, whereas milking duration decreased.
 
 
 
 
 
Abstract
Over-pressure (OP) is best described as the pressure above what is needed to stop milk flow, which is applied to the teat end during the C- and D-Phases of pulsation (Mein and Reinemann 2009). OP has been shown to affect teat end hyperkeratosis in as little as two weeks (Kochman and Little 2010). The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between over pressure and teat end health/milking performance. Results show that a change in the level of OP can have a dramatic effect on the distribution of teat scores. The role that OP plays in the outcome of teat end health needs to be considered when setting up milking machines and more specifically the relationship between vacuum settings and liner type and their effect on teat end health.
 
 
 
 
 
Abstract
Many factors influence teat end condition, including weather, genetics, preparation procedures, system settings and teat dips. Liner choice also affects teat end condition since these milking components come into constant, direct contact with the teat ends and udders. The collapse of the milking liner on the teat ends directly correlates with teat end health, with the shape of the liner barrel playing an integral role in how the liner collapses around the teat end. The aim of this study was to observe teat end condition as a factor of barrel shape and collapse of the most common milk liner types. Observations were made regarding round, triangle, square and a new Tri-Circle® barrel shape. Teat end scores were compared for 278 dairies across the United States. Dairies that used liners with multi-sided barrels consistently had better teat end health, indicating that multi-sided barrels are not only effective at keeping teat ends healthy, but can also help improve bad teat ends as well.
 
 
 
 
 
Abstract
During the C- and D-Phases of pulsation, pressure is applied to the teat by the walls of the liner. The initial pressure applied to the teat by liner closure differs from the pressure applied by a closed liner. The objective of this study was to examine how the spikes of pressure exerted on the teat affect milking performance differences between liner types. The pressure exerted initially on a teat at the beginning of the C-Phase will change dramatically based on the duration of C-Phase, which may also explain the difference in milking performance based on the variability of C-Phases (Kochman 2008).
 
 
 
 
 
Abstract
Lauren AgriSystems is committed to researching and understanding our products and how they impact the dairy industry. After five years of product development and sales, we decided to evaluate dairies that have been using the Lauren liner for a prolonged time period. This study compares peak milk production from a dairy using Lauren Liners for 4+ years to data from a population of dairies. Peak milk (PM) is often used as an indicator of how well a dairy is performing. The data presented in this article clearly indicates that a continued high level of PM production can be attained while using Lauren Liners.
 
 
 
 
 
 
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